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{\rtf1\ansi {\colortbl;\red0\green0\blue0;\red0\green0\blue255;\red0\green255\blue255;\red0\green255\blue0;\red255\green0\blue255;\red255\green0\blue0;\red255\green255\blue0;\red255\green255\blue255;}{\fonttbl{\f0\froman\cpg0\fcharset0 Times New Roman;}{\f1\froman\cpg1252\fcharset0 Times New Roman;}{\f2\froman\cpg1251\fcharset204 Times New Roman;}{\f3\froman\cpg1250\fcharset238 Times New Roman;}{\f4\froman\cpg1257\fcharset186 Times New Roman;}{\f5\froman\cpg1254\fcharset162 Times New Roman;}{\f6\froman\cpg1253\fcharset161 Times New Roman;}{\f7\froman\cpg1255\fcharset177 Times New Roman;}}{\stylesheet {\sbasedon222\f1\fs20 Normal;}}\paperw12240\paperh15840\margl1548\margr5177\margt1440\margb720 \sectd \sbknone\pgwsxn12240\pghsxn15840\marglsxn1548\margrsxn5177\margtsxn1440\margbsxn720\cols1\colsx60 \pard \plain \cbpat8\qj\li32\fi0\ri22\sb0\sa0\sl-238\slmult0 \f1\fs20{\b0\i0\cf1\charscalex100\expndtw4\f1\cchs0\lang1033\fs24 State, which stretches from the Punjab "in the~ south \expndtw2 to the Pamirs in the north, and from the Tibetan border \expndtw8 in the east to the Yarkhun river in the west. It was \expndtw-1 then, strictly speaking, applied to the upper valley of the \expndtw4 Vitasta (Jhelum) and the tracts watered by its tribu\-\expndtw5 taries, although these territories were occasionally \expndtw4 enlarged by the conquests of some of the monarchs. \expndtw2 Being isolated from the rest of the country by huge mountain walls, Kashmir was rarely affected by the \expndtw0 general currents of Indian history, and thus developed \expndtw4 distinctive institutions and a culture of her own.}\par \pard \plain \cbpat8\ql\li40\fi0\ri0\sb151\sa0 \f1\fs20{\b0\i\cf1\charscalex100\expndtw2\f1\cchs0\lang1033\fs23 Early History}\par \pard \plain \cbpat8\qj\li18\fi472\ri18\sb184\sa0\sl-238\slmult0 \f1\fs20{\b0\i0\cf1\charscalex100\expndtw-2\f1\cchs0\lang1033\fs24 Our knowledge of the affairs of the valley is mainly \expndtw-4 based on Kalhana's \i \}Lajatarangini\super l\nosupersub  \i0 and later supplemen\-\expndtw7 tary chronicles,\super 2\nosupersub  But even Kalhana, who completed \expndtw-3 his great work in 1150 A.D., is of little help for the period \expndtw0 preceding THe seventh century. It is certain that in the \expndtw5 time of Asoka Kashmir formed part of the Maurya \expndtw7 empire, for he is credited with having built there \expndtw8 numerous \i stupas \i0 and monasteries, and founded the city of Snnagara. Indeed, Yuan Chwang goes so far \expndtw4 as to'assert that Asoka "gave up all Kashmir for the \expndtw0 benefit of the Buddhist church."\super 3\nosupersub  After Asoka's death, probably it became independent under one of his sons, \expndtw9 Jalauka. Several centuries later, Kashmir was ruled \expndtw3 by the Kushan kings, Kaniska and Huviska, but it was}\par \pard \plain \cbpat8\qj\li14\fi0\ri0\sb241\sa0\sl-198\slmult0 \f1\fs20{\b0\i0\cf1\charscalex100\expndtw8\f1\cchs0\lang1033\fs20 to reign" (Briggs, I, p. 38).   Al Utbl gives a slightly different \expndtw3 explanation (see Elliot, II, p. 27).}\par \pard \plain \cbpat8\ql\li0\fi396\ri0\sb4\sa0\sl-198\slmult0\tx518 \f1\fs20{\b0\i0\super\cf1\charscalex100\expndtw0\f1\cchs0\lang1033\fs20 1{\charscalex100\expndtw0\tab }\nosupersub\i\expndtw-2 RjajataranejnJ, \i0 ed. by Durga. Prasada, Bombay, 1892; English\line \expndtw3 Translation by Sir Aurel Stein, London, 1900.    See this work for\line detailed references.   Also consult \i Dj. Hist. North. Ind., \i0 I, Ch. HI,\line \expndtw5 pp. 107-84.}\par \pard \plain \cbpat8\ql\li0\fi396\ri0\sb0\sa0\sl-198\slmult0\tx518 \f1\fs20{\b0\i0\super\cf1\charscalex100\expndtw0\f1\cchs0\lang1033\fs20 2{\charscalex100\expndtw0\tab }\nosupersub\expndtw3 See e.g., Jonaraja's \i Dvitzya, \i0 ed. by Peterson\line \expndtw2 (Bombay, 1896).;}\par \pard \plain \cbpat8\ql\li396\fi0\ri0\sb4\sa0\sl-198\slmult0\tx518 \f1\fs20{\b0\i0\super\cf1\charscalex100\expndtw0\f1\cchs0\lang1033\fs20 3{\charscalex100\expndtw0\tab }\nosupersub\expndtw6 Seal, I, p. iji; Watters, I, p. 267.}\par }